The Cold War- Engesser-Hogan

The Cold War (1947-1991)

After WWII two counties emerged from the rubble as superpowers; the countries were United States and The USSR.  These countries were based on two polar opposite concepts on how their countries were run. The United States was founded on Democracy and derived its power from the people and these citizens elected officials. While as Soviet Russia was run on the ideology of communism, where the government controlled all power in means of production and law.

During the 1950’s to 1990’s these two countries constantly clashed over there political differences.  This time period was known as The Cold War. There were several causes of this war including, American fear of a communist attack, Truman’s dislike for Stalin, USSR’s dislike for capitalism, and the USA’s refusal to share nuclear weapon secrets .(Causes of The Cold War-History Learning Site) No physical conflicts befallen this time period; instead of battles and sabotage, there were just high tensions between the two rivalry nations. This is where the name derived from because the war was “cold”. The two superpowers each belonged to a different alliance, Russia belonged to the Warsaw pact and the US was a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

During the Yalta conference after the war new president Harry Truman and Stalin argued about the settlement of Europe and which nation would control different war ridden countries.  This was the start of the distrust between both The USA and USSR.  After the war Stalin controlled many countries in the eastern bloc including Poland and Lithuania and forced then to abide under Communist control.  Stalin crushed anyone who opposed Communism and forced them into adapting a command economy; where people were told what to make and sell by the government.  The Eastern bloc controlled by USA and Britain took this as a threat to democracy across Eastern Europe.  Russia’s plan was to take control of countries whose economy had been destroyed by the war.  The wall of communism spreading across Europe was known as the “Iron Curtain”. The countries constantly threated the other with nuclear weapons and this developed the arm race between them to see who could gather more atomic bombs over this period of time. By 1982 The United States produced 2032 Launchers, 11,000 Warheads, and 4,100 Mega tonnages.